www.Irishcoincufflinks.com gives you information on Ireland’s Geographical make up.

Physical geography
Main articles: Geography of Ireland and Geology of Ireland
See also: Climate of Ireland

Physical features of IrelandThe area of Ireland is 84,421 km2 (32,595 sq mi). A ring of coastal mountains surround low plains at the centre of the island. The highest of these is Carrauntoohil (Irish: Corrán Tuathail) in County Kerry, which rises to 1,038 m (3,406 ft) above sea level. The most arable land lies in the province of Leinster.[16] Western areas are can be mountainous and rocky, with green panoramic vistas. The River Shannon, at 386 km (240 mi), the island’s longest river, rises in County Cavan in the north west and flows 113 kilometres (70 mi) to Limerick city in the mid west.

The island’s lush vegetation, a product of its mild climate and frequent rainfall, earns it the sobriquet the Emerald Isle. Overall, Ireland has a mild but changeable oceanic climate with few extremes. The climate is typically insular and is temperate avoiding the extremes in temperature of many other areas in the world at similar latitudes.[18] This is a result of the moderating moist winds which ordinarily prevail from the South-Western Atlantic.

Precipitation falls throughout the year, but is light overall, particularly in the east. The west tends to be wetter on average and prone to Atlantic storms, especially in the late autumn and winter months. These occasionally bring destructive winds and higher total rainfall to these areas, as well as sometimes snow and hail. The regions of north County Galway and east County Mayo have the highest incidents of recorded lightning annually for the island, with lightening occurring approximately five to ten days per year in these areas.[19] Munster, in the south, records the least snow whereas Ulster, in the north, records the most.

Inland areas are warmer in summer and colder in winter. Usually around 40 days of the year are below freezing (0 °C/32 °F) at inland weather stations, compared to 10 days at coastal stations. Ireland is sometimes affected by heat waves, most recently in 1995, 2003 and 2006. In common with the rest of Europe, Ireland experienced unusually cold weather during the winter of 2009-2010. Temperatures fell as low as -13°C (9°F) in some parts and up to a metre (3 feet) of snow in mountainous areas.

The warmest recorded air temperature was 33.3 °C (91.9 °F) (Kilkenny Castle, County Kilkenny, June 1887) and the lowest was −19.1 °C (−2.4 °F) (Markree Castle, County Sligo, January 1881).[20] The greatest recorded annual rainfall was 3,964.9 mm (156.1 in) (Ballaghbeama Gap, County Kerry, 1960). The driest year was 1887, with only 356.6 mm (14.0 in) of rain recorded at Glasnevin. The longest period of absolute drought was in Limerick where there was no recorded rainfall over 38 days during April and May 1938.[19]

Carrauntoohil
the highest peak in Ireland
at Macgillycuddy’s ReeksThe island consists of varied geological provinces. In the far west, around County Galway and County Donegal, is a medium to high grade metamorphic and igneous complex of Caledonide affinity, similar to the Scottish Highlands. Across southeast Ulster and extending southwest to Longford and south to Navan is a province of Ordovician and Silurian rocks, with similarities to the Southern Uplands province of Scotland. Further south, along the County Wexford coastline, is an area of granite intrusives into more Ordovician and Silurian rocks, like that found in Wales.[21][22] In the southwest, around Bantry Bay and the mountains of Macgillicuddy’s Reeks, is an area of substantially deformed, but only lightly metamorphosed, Devonian-aged rocks.[23] This partial ring of “hard rock” geology is covered by a blanket of Carboniferous limestone over the centre of the country, giving rise to a comparatively fertile and lush landscape. The west-coast district of the Burren around Lisdoonvarna has well developed karst features. Significant stratiform lead-zinc mineralization is found in the limestones around Silvermines and Tynagh.

Hydrocarbon exploration is ongoing following the first major find at the Kinsale Head gas field off Cork in the mid-1970s.More recently, in 1999, economically significant finds of natural gas were made in the Corrib Gas Field off the County Mayo coast. This has increased activity off the west coast in parallel with the “West of Shetland” step-out development from the North Sea hydrocarbon province. The Helvick oil field, estimated to contain over 28 million barrels (4,500,000 m3) of oil, is another recent discovery.